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Top 60 MVC Interview Questions and Answers

MVC Interview Questions

If you want to get yourself better prepared for MVC interview questions and answers then this article is for you. We have enlisted most of the frequently asked questions and answers you may be looking for before appearing in an interview. The below list is prepared with the help of field experts in asp.net. Design pattern and spring Framework. Have a look at this Article based on MVC architecture.

We have divided this article into three sections, 

  • Beginners level
  • Intermediate Level
  • Advanced Level

MVC interview questions and answers for fresher or entry-level

Below are some basic MVC interview questions and answers for fresher’s, which let you prepare for a beginner position interview.

1. What does MVC stand for?

MVC stands for Model View Controller. 

2. What is MVC?

Model-View-Controller

MVC is commonly known as Model-View-Controller. It is a software design pattern, which is used to develop modern user interfaces that separate the software architecture into three layers. Each layer serves an individual purpose. the Model is defined as an object, data, or file used by a program. The view is used to display data including everything that a user can view also allows the user to edit the data, it works as a user interface. The controller plays a vital role, it works as a brain of the whole architecture that accepts the user request and responds accordingly.

3. What are the different types of controller action methods?

There are 7 types of controller’s action method

  • ViewResult
  • JavascriptResult
  • RedirectResult
  • JSONResult
  • ContentResult
  • PartialViewResult
  • EmptyResult

4. What are the benefits of MVC?

Following are the benefits of MVC:

  • Faster Development Approach: MVC framework supports parallel and faster development. Any web application can be developed much faster as three different developers can work on each different layer at the same time. 
  • Multiple view support: MVC architecture separates the model layer from the view layer so it enables you to display multiple views of the same data at the same time. 
  • Change Accommodation: It supports frequent changes in user interface than any business rule, like display, color, and size of fonts and screen layouts are easier to change as it does not affect the entire architecture. 
  • SoC – Separation of Concerns: It is the core benefit of using ASP.Net MVC framework. It neatly separates all three layers i.e. User Interface, Data, and business Logics from each other.
  • More Control: ASP.NET MVC framework enables you to use JavaScript, CSS, and HTML according to your requirements, as it allows you to have more control than any other framework. 
  • Testability: MVC framework supports the TDD (Test-driven Development) approach that provides greater testability of Web applications. 

5. What are the roles of components Presentation, Abstraction, and Control in MVC?

  • Presentation: It is used to display data on the user interface from abstraction.
  • Abstraction: It is the business domain functionality, which retrieves the information and processes it. 
  • Control: It is similar to controllers in MVC framework. It is used to build the connection between abstraction and presentation, as it processes the external events and updates the model.

6. How to maintain the MVC session?

The MVC session can be maintained in three ways –

  • temp data
  • viewdata
  • view bag.

7. Explain the MVC Application life cycle?

There are two main steps in any web application lifecycle. First, accept any type of request and then change the application state according to the request. The concept is not unique for the MVC application life cycle, creating the request data and sending the response to the browser.

8. What does the MVC Pattern define with 3 logical layers?

The MVC model defines web applications with 3 logic layers:

  • Model logic – A business layer 
  • View Logic – display layer 
  • Controller Logic – input control

The model part refers to all the data-related logic that a developer works with. It represents the data that is transferred between the controller and view. The model fetches the data from the Database, manipulates it, and updates it into Databases.

The view is the part where users interact for the very first time. It is responsible for all the UI logic of the applications. Generally, model data is used to create views. 

A controller is the core part of the MVC framework which handles all business logic, user interaction, and creates connections between model and view layers. 

9. What do you understand by Model View Control?

MVC is a three-layer software architecture; these three layers play different roles in web application development.

  • The Model layer – is defined as an object, data, or file used by a program
  • The view – it is the MVC application user interface 
  • The controller – it is responsible for handling request and response to the browser.

The MVC model is used to develop modern web applications with attractive user interfaces. It provides the central pieces for developing and designing a web, desktop application, and web applications.

10. In which assembly the MVC framework is usually defined.

The MVC framework is generally defined In System.Web.MVC

11. What is the MVC Application life cycle?

 The lifecycle of MVC Applications generally contains 2 primary steps, 

  • Understand the user`s request
  • Sending a response to the browser depending on the user request. 

12. What are the various steps to create the request object?

There are four different steps are required to create a request object: 

  • Fill the route
  • Fetch the route
  • Make a request context
  • Make a controller instance

13. What do you mean by the partial view of MVC?

A partial view refers to a part of HTML that is cautiously injected into an already existing DOM. Partial views are generally implemented for splitting Razor views, making them simpler to create and update. The controller can return the partial views directly.

14. What is the difference between adding routes in a webform application & an MVC application?

MapPageRoute() is used for adding routes in the webForm application.

MapRoute() is used for adding routes in MVC applications.

15. What is the use of action filters in MVC?

ActionFilters are used to execute the logic that gets implemented before and after the controller action executes.

16. Explain the steps, how to execute the MVC project?

Following are the steps to be followed for execution of the MVC project

  1. First, receive the request for an application
  2. Then perform the routing
  3. Then, the MVC request handler is generated
  4. Create and execute the controller 
  5. the action is invoked
  6. finally, execute the results 

17. What is routing in MVC?

Routing in MVC refers to a pattern matching scheme, which is used to map incoming browser requests to a certain controller action.

18. Name 3 important segments for routing?

The 3 important segments for routing are:

  • Controller Name
  • Action Method Name
  • Parameter

19. What are the different properties of MVC routes?

MVC routes are responsible for selecting which controller method will execute for a given URL. Thus, the URL has the following properties:

  • Route Name: It is the name of a route. 
  • URL Pattern: It holds the literal values and variable placeholders (commonly known as URL parameters).
  • Defaults: it is the default value, set at the time of creating the parameter.
  • Constraints: These are used for applying against the URL pattern for more narrowly defining the URL matching it.

20. what are the two ways for adding constraints to a route?

Constraints can be added to the route in two ways: 

  • By using regular expressions
  • Using an object, which implements IRouteConstraint interfaces.

Interview Question and Answers for mid-level

Let’s have a look at some more technical MVC interview questions and answers.

1. How can we implement validation in MVC? 

We use the validators to implement validation in MVC defined in System.ComponentModel.DataAnnotations namespace. Some of the validators are mentioned below

  • Required
  • DataType
  • Range
  • StringLength

 2. Explain the MVC page life cycle?

MVC page life cycle is defined in the following steps.

  • Initialize App 
  • Routing
  • Instantiate and execute controller
  • Find and invoke controller action
  • Instantiate and display view.

3. What is the use of ViewModel in MVC?

ViewModel is a class with properties that are used to shape multiple objects from one or more models into a single object. 

4. Which filters are executed in the end?

 “Exception Filters” are executed in the end.

5. How you can use Ajax in MVC?

Ajax can be used in two ways in MVC. 

  • Ajax libraries
  • Jquery

6. How is the routing carried out in MVC?

The Routing in MVC is a pattern-matching mechanism that is used to map incoming requests to a specific controller action. When the routing engine receives a request, it matches the URL of that request with the registered URL pattern and responds according to a matched pattern 

The MVC routing has 3 parameters. 

  • The first parameter defines the name of the route
  • The second parameter selects a specific pattern with which the URL matches.
  • The third parameter is used to provide default values for placeholders.

7. Explain Test-Driven Development (TDD)?

TDD is an abbreviation of Test Driven Development. A practice states that first write your tests before you write the code. It means your code must have to pass all the unit tests before you check-in your code into Source control

8. Explain the tools used for unit testing in ASP.Net MVC?

Following are tools used for unit testing in ASP.Net MVC

  • NUnit
  • xUnit.NET
  • Ninject 2
  • Moq

9. What do you know about GET and POST Action types?

GET: GET action type is used to request data from a specified resource to a server using the HTTP protocol. It carries a request parameter attached in the URL string. 

POST: POST action type is used to submit data from a specified resource to the server using the HTTP protocol. It carries a request parameter in the message body that makes it a more secure way of transferring data. 

10. How will you navigate from one view to another view in MVC? Explain with a hyperlink example

ActionLink method is used to navigate from one view to another. Here is an example of navigating the Home controller by invoking the Go to Home action.

    <%=Html.ActionLink(“Home”,”GoTo Home”)%>

11. Define Temp data, View, and Viewbag?

  • Temp data: it is used to maintain data when working shifts from one controller to another.
  • View data: it is used to maintain data when we shift within an application from the controller to view.
  • View Bag: it works as a view data’s dynamic wrapper.

12. Explain the terms jQuery and AJAX libraries in MVC?

  • jQuery: It is a JavaScript written library specially designed to simplify HTML-DOM manipulation
  • AJAX libraries:  Asynchronous JavaScript XML (AJAX) libraries are web development techniques written in JavaScript that are used to perform various operations. 

13. List down the difference between ActionResult and ViewResult?

Following are the differences between ActionResult and ViewResult: 

ActionResultViewResult
It is effective when you want to get various kinds of views. dynamicallyIt is not effective when you want to get various kind of views, dynamically
It is an abstract class.It is derived from ActionResult class.
For example ViewResult, FileStreamResult, and JsonResultIt does not have, its own derived class

14. What do you understand by TempData in MVC?

TempData is a short form of Temporary data, that is used to hold the data for a certain period. It belongs to the MVC’s TempDataDictionary. It has the ability to store data for an HTTP request as well.

15. What is Output Caching in MVC?

Output Caching is a methodology used to enhance the overall performance of MVC applications. it is used to store the data for a short period, sent back by controllers, so the user data should not be generated every time while invoking the same methods. It overall reduces the time and traffic, cut down the round trips of a database server, etc. 

16. Which class do you use for sending back the result in JSON format in MVC?

“JSONRESULT” class is used for sending the result back in JSON format in any MVC application

17. What are Minification and Bundling in MVC?

Minification and Bundling are the new techniques recently introduces in MVC Framework. These two are used to decrease the request load time. It improves the load time by dropping the number of requests sent to the server and decreasing the requested asset’s size.

18. How to handle an error in MVC?

Exception handling is generally used to handle errors in any web application. The HandleError attribute is used to provide built-in exception filters in MVC, it can be more practical the action method and Controller at the global level.

Example of implementation:

public static void RegGlobalFilters(Global_FilterCollection filt)  

{  

    filt.Add(new HandleErrorAttribute());

}  

protected void Application_Start()  

{  

 AreaRegn.RegisterAllAreas();  

RegGlobalFilters(Global_Filters.Filters);  

 RegisterRoutes(Route_Table.Routes);  

}  

19. What do you understand by separation of concern?

Separation of Concerns is a core feature of the MVC Framework supported by ASP.NET. It is an MVC principle for separating MVC application architecture into three distinct layers such that each layer works independently. These layers are User Interface (UI), data, and business logic.

20. What are the areas of benefits of using MVC?

The area of benefits of using MVC is:

  • Unit testing becomes much easier.
  • It allows its users to shape an application into 3 separate sections, views, models, and controllers.
  • It becomes easy to integrate with other application areas.

Interview Question and Answers for Experienced

Let’s get into the more depth of MVC interview questions.

1. What is Spring MVC?

The Spring MVC is a JAVA based framework that provides a “Model View Controller” (MVC) architecture to build an application. it enables its user to use all the fundamental traits of an essential Spring Framework such as light-weight, dependency injection, inversion of control, integration with other frameworks, etc.

2. Explain the differences between View and Partial View?

The major differences between View and Partial View are as follows 

ViewPartial View
It is not lightweighted as compare to partialview.It is light weighted
It has its page layoutIt does not have its page layout
It starts page is rendered before rendering anything else.It is specifically designed rendering within the view
It has markup tags of HTML like head, body, title, etc.It does not contain any markup tag.

3. Explain the concept of Filters in MVC?

Filters in MVC are used to apply additional logic at the different levels of request processing in the MVC Framework. it is a custom class where you write logic to execute before or after the execution of an action method. Filters can be applied to any action method in a programmatic or declarative way.

4. How many types of Filters in MVC?

  • Action filter – implements the IActionFilter
  • Exception filter – implements the IExceptionFilter 
  • Authorization filter – implements the IAuthorizationFilter
  • Result filter – implements the IResultFilter

5. What are Non Action methods in MVC?

All public methods consider as Actions in MVC. A method would be declared with the “NonAction” attribute if you are creating a method and you do not want to use that as an action method

[NonAction]

public void TestMethod(){

// Method logic

}

6. Which is a better fit, Razor or ASPX?

Razor is more favored because according to Microsoft, as it is light weighted and has easy syntax.

7.  What do you know about Html. Partial in MVC?

This method is used to render the specified partial view. It accepts the Partial view name as a string parameter and returns MvcHtmlString. It is not dependent on action methods and returns an HTML string, so you have a chance to edit an HTML before retendering. We can use this like below –

@Html.Partial(“TestPartialView”)

8. What is Scaffolding in MVC?

Scaffolding can be defined as a code-generation framework supported by ASP.NET web applications. You use scaffolding to your MVC applications when you want to add the code that interacts with data models. Scaffolding can decrease the amount of time to develop standard data operations in your application.

9. Write down the types of Scaffoldings.

Different types of scaffolding in MVC includes;

  • List
  • Delete
  • Details
  • Create
  • Empty
  • Edit

10. What is the ordering of execution of the filters in MVC?

Filters are used in the following order –

  1. Authorization filters are executed
  2. Then, Action filters are executed
  3. Then, the response filters are executed
  4. Finally, the exception filters

11. What is the use of the default route {resource}.axd/{*pathinfo}?

With the help of default route resource}.axd/{*pathinfo}, you can avoid the request for a web resource file such as ScriptResource.axd or Webresource.axd from being passed to the controller.

12. what are the possible file extensions used for razor views?

The different file extensions that are used by razor views are:

  • .cshtml:  it is used when C# is using as the programming language in your MVC application
  • .vbhtml:  it is used when VB is using as the programming language in your MVC application.

13. What are the rules of Razor syntax?

The basic rules for creating Razor are:

  • @{ … } is used to enclosed block of Razor codes 
  • @ symbol is used to initiate Variables and functions of inline expressions 
  • The ‘var’ keyword is used for declaring variables
  • A semicolon is used to terminate Razor code statements 
  • C# files have .cshtml as file extension

14. How can you implement the MVC forms authentication?

Authentication in the form are applied to increase the security, the authentication can be performed by verifying the user uniqueness through credentials like username with password, phone number, and email with a password. So only an authenticated person can access services.  

15. Point out the 2 instances where you cannot use routing or where routing is not necessary?

The 2 situations where routing is not used or not necessary are:

  1. When there is a physical file matching the URL pattern
  2. When any routing gets disabled in any particular URL pattern

16. will you explain the concept of RenderBody and RenderPage of MVC?

RenderBody works as a ContentPlaceHolder of web forms. It will be responsible for rendering the child views/pages, whereas the layout page comprises on single RenderBody() method. The Layout page contains the Multiple RenderPage().

17. What is “HelperPage.IsAjax” Property?

The HelperPage.IsAjax property is used to verify if the Ajax is used throughout the request of the web page.

18. How can you render raw HTML in Asp.net MVC view?

Html.Raw helper can be used to render raw Html in Asp.net MVC

Syntax

@Html.Raw(‘<h1>Raw Example </h1>’);

19. What are HTML helpers in MVC?

 HTML Helpers is a class in MVC that is used in views to display HTML controls such as TextBox links, TextArea, etc.

Example of an HTML Helper.

@Html.ActionLink(“Create New”, “create”)

The above example create an HTML link something like <a href=”/create”>Create New</a>

20. Define what is Glimpse?

Glimpse are NuGet packages that help in debugging, diagnostics, and getting information about the model, timelines, routes, binding, environment etc.

FAQs

What is MVC and how it works?

MVC or “Model view controller” is an application design model. The MVC includes three interconnected parts including the Model, View, and Controller which are used to develop modern user interfaces.

What is MVC life cycle?

MVC lifecycle refers to the series of steps which are involved in handling of any type of request. MVC lifecycle may also refers to the series of steps involved to change an application state.

Is MVC faster than webforms?

With the screen pops on the order of 1 to 2 seconds, MVC is faster than the Web forms where the order is more like 3 to 5 seconds.

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